Flood Warning N.W.S.Local Weather Alerts

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... East Fork Angelina River Near Cushing Affecting Rusk And Nacogdoches Counties. For The East Fork Angelina River...including Cushing...minor Flooding Is Forecast. ...flood Warning Now In Effect Until Wednesday Evening... ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 8:25pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 6:00pmTarget Area: Nacogdoches; Rusk

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Sabine River Near Beckville Affecting Panola, Rusk, Harrison And Gregg Counties. For The Sabine River...including Mineola, Hawkins, Gladewater, Longview, Beckville, Logansport...minor Flooding Is Forecast. ...flood Warning Now In Effect From Tuesday Afternoon To Early ...Read More.
Effective: January 31, 2023 at 12:00pmExpires: February 2, 2023 at 1:30amTarget Area: Gregg; Harrison; Panola; Rusk

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... Rabbit Creek At Kilgore Affecting Gregg County. For The Rabbit Creek...including Kilgore...minor Flooding Is Forecast. ...flood Warning Now In Effect Until Wednesday Afternoon... * What...minor Flooding Is Occurring And Minor Flooding Is Forecast. ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 8:17pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 3:00pmTarget Area: Gregg

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... Angelina River Near Lufkin Affecting Angelina, Cherokee And Nacogdoches Counties. For The Angelina River...including Alto, Lufkin...minor Flooding Is Forecast. ...flood Warning Remains In Effect Until Further Notice... ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 8:15pmExpires: January 31, 2023 at 8:15pmTarget Area: Angelina; Cherokee; Nacogdoches

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Attoyac Bayou Near Chireno Affecting San Augustine, Rusk, Nacogdoches And Shelby Counties. For The Attoyac Bayou...including Chireno...minor Flooding Is Forecast. ...flood Warning Now In Effect Until Early Saturday Afternoon... ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 8:12pmExpires: February 4, 2023 at 2:00pmTarget Area: Nacogdoches; Rusk; San Augustine; Shelby

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... East Fork San Jacinto Near New Caney Affecting Harris, Liberty And Montgomery Counties. ...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Peach Creek At Splendora Affecting Harris And Montgomery Counties. San Bernard River Near Boling Affecting Fort Bend, Brazoria And ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 7:10pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 3:00amTarget Area: Harris; Montgomery

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... East Fork San Jacinto Near New Caney Affecting Harris, Liberty And Montgomery Counties. ...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Peach Creek At Splendora Affecting Harris And Montgomery Counties. San Bernard River Near Boling Affecting Fort Bend, Brazoria And ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 7:10pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 12:00pmTarget Area: Harris; Liberty; Montgomery

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... East Fork San Jacinto Near New Caney Affecting Harris, Liberty And Montgomery Counties. ...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Peach Creek At Splendora Affecting Harris And Montgomery Counties. San Bernard River Near Boling Affecting Fort Bend, Brazoria And ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 7:10pmExpires: February 2, 2023 at 12:00amTarget Area: Brazoria; Fort Bend; Wharton

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Neches River At Neches River Saltwater Barrier Village Creek Near Kountze ...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... Louisiana... Sabine River Near Deweyville ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 6:53pmExpires: January 31, 2023 at 7:00pmTarget Area: Hardin; Jefferson

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Neches River At Neches River Saltwater Barrier Village Creek Near Kountze ...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... Louisiana... Sabine River Near Deweyville ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 6:53pmExpires: January 31, 2023 at 7:00pmTarget Area: Newton; Orange

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Neches River At Neches River Saltwater Barrier Village Creek Near Kountze ...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... Louisiana... Sabine River Near Deweyville ...Read More.
Effective: February 2, 2023 at 6:00amExpires: January 31, 2023 at 7:00pmTarget Area: Hardin; Jasper; Jefferson; Orange

Flood Warning
...the Flood Warning Is Extended For The Following Rivers In Texas... Neches River At Neches River Saltwater Barrier Village Creek Near Kountze ...the Flood Warning Continues For The Following Rivers In Texas... Louisiana... Sabine River Near Deweyville ...Read More.
Effective: February 1, 2023 at 4:30amExpires: February 3, 2023 at 10:00pmTarget Area: Hardin

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Storm Warning Remains In Effect Until Noon Cst Wednesday... * What...heavy Sleet And Freezing Rain. Additional Sleet Accumulations Of Up To One Half Inch And Ice Accumulations Of One Tenth To Three Tenths Of An Inch. * Where...portions Of East Central, Southeast And Southern ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 8:41pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 12:00pmTarget Area: Clay

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Weather Advisory Remains In Effect Until Midnight Cst Tuesday Night... ...winter Storm Warning Remains In Effect From Midnight Tuesday Night To Noon Cst Wednesday... * What...sleet And Freezing Rain. Total Sleet Accumulations Of Up To One Quarter Inch And Ice Accumulations Of Up To One ...Read More.
Effective: February 1, 2023 at 12:00amExpires: February 1, 2023 at 12:00pmTarget Area: Archer; Baylor; Knox

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Storm Warning Remains In Effect Until 6 Am Cst Wednesday... * What...areas Of Rain, Possibly Mixed With Freezing Rain, Sleet, And Drizzle, Will Increase And Spread Over The Western Sections Of East Texas And Southeast Oklahoma This Afternoon And Tonight, Which Will Result In Potentially Significant Icing Through The ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 2:50pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 6:00amTarget Area: Camp; Franklin; Morris; Red River; Smith; Titus; Upshur; Wood

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Storm Warning Now In Effect Until Noon Cst Wednesday... * What...several Rounds Of Mixed Wintry Precipitation Are Expected, Mainly In The Form Of Freezing Rain And/or Sleet, With The Heavier Precipitation Expected To Begin Tuesday Afternoon. Total Ice Accumulations Of One Tenth To One Half Of An Inch Will Be Possible From Late Tonight Through Wednesday Morning, With ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 2:18pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 12:00pmTarget Area: Brown; Callahan; Coke; Coleman; Concho; Crockett; Fisher; Haskell; Irion; Jones; Kimble; Mason; McCulloch; Menard; Nolan; Runnels; San Saba; Schleicher; Shackelford; Sterling; Sutton; Taylor; Throckmorton; Tom Green

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Weather Advisory In Effect From Midnight Tonight To Noon Cst Tuesday... ...winter Storm Warning In Effect From Noon Tuesday To 9 Am Cst Thursday... * What...for The Winter Storm Warning, Significant Icing Expected. Total Ice Accumulations Of One Tenth To Four Tenths ...Read More.
Effective: January 31, 2023 at 12:00pmExpires: February 2, 2023 at 9:00amTarget Area: Borden; Crane; Dawson; Glasscock; Howard; Martin; Midland; Mitchell; Reagan; Scurry; Upton

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Weather Advisory In Effect From Midnight Tonight To Noon Cst Tuesday... ...winter Storm Warning In Effect From Noon Tuesday To 9 Am Cst Thursday... * What...for The Winter Storm Warning, Significant Icing Expected. Total Ice Accumulations Of Around One Tenth To One Quarter Of ...Read More.
Effective: January 31, 2023 at 12:00pmExpires: February 2, 2023 at 9:00amTarget Area: Pecos

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Storm Warning Now In Effect Until Noon Cst Wednesday... * What...mixed Precipitation, Primarily In The Form Of Freezing Rain And/or Sleet Is Expected. Total Ice Or Sleet Accumulations Between One Quarter And One Half Of An Inch Are Possible. Pockets Of Heavier Sleet Accumulation Will Be Possible. * Where...all Of North Texas And Western Central Texas. ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 1:43pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 12:00pmTarget Area: Anderson; Bell; Bosque; Collin; Comanche; Cooke; Coryell; Dallas; Delta; Denton; Eastland; Ellis; Erath; Falls; Fannin; Freestone; Grayson; Hamilton; Henderson; Hill; Hood; Hopkins; Hunt; Jack; Johnson; Kaufman; Lamar; Lampasas; Leon; Limestone; McLennan; Milam; Mills; Montague; Navarro; Palo Pinto; Parker; Rains; Robertson; Rockwall; Somervell; Stephens; Tarrant; Van Zandt; Wise; Young

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Storm Warning In Effect Until Noon Cst Wednesday... * What...significant Icing. Total Ice Accumulations Of Up To Two Tenths Of An Inch. * Where...burleson County. * When...until Noon Cst Wednesday. * Impacts...difficult Travel Conditions Are Possible. The ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 1:28pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 12:00pmTarget Area: Burleson

Winter Storm Warning
...winter Storm Warning Remains In Effect Until Noon Cst Wednesday... * What...significant Icing Expected. Total Ice Accumulations Of A Quarter To Three Quarters Of An Inch Will Be Possible. * Where...hill Country And The Austin Metro Area. * When...until Noon Cst Wednesday. ...Read More.
Effective: January 30, 2023 at 1:01pmExpires: February 1, 2023 at 12:00pmTarget Area: Bandera; Bastrop; Blanco; Burnet; Caldwell; Comal; Edwards; Gillespie; Guadalupe; Hays; Kendall; Kerr; Lee; Llano; Real; Travis; Williamson

The GMRS service is readily available for members of the public to gain access to; I thought it would be useful to put together a brief primer to fill in newcomers interested in using the services with a few of the basics:

For information on obtaining a license; see “Getting a GMRS License

Frequently Used Terms

Term
Meaning
Channel
A common frequency standardized either within a radio service or within a manufacture of radios. The GMRS has 22 channels defined by the FCC, and an additional 8 channels to be used as repeater input frequency (for a total of 30)
CTCSS
Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System, also marketed as Private Line (PL), Privacy Code or Sub-Channels, this is a constant tone which the radio sends out when transmitting, that is usually outside of the audible portion of a radio’s receiver and thus not apparent to the user. The tone is used to control the squelch on the receiving end, and lets radios and repeaters better handle channel interference, either from other stations on the same frequency, or other sources. Almost all repeaters require the use of a CTCSS tone, although they can use an open squelch for operation.
DCS
Digital Coded Squelch; a digital variant of the CTCSS tone. The radio sends out a continuous data pulse that represents a squelch code, again, typically outside of the audible portion of a radio’s receiver. DCS is less common on repeaters, but still commonly used. It is more resilient to interference than CTCSS, but also more sensitive to weak-signal problems.
Duplex
A method of radio operation where users transmit on one frequency/channel, and receive on another. This method of operation is used for operations with repeater stations.
FCC
Federal Communication Commission; the branch of government that administers and regulates communication services, including wireless radio.
Frequency
The rate at which something oscillates, usually measured in terms of oscillations per second. Megahertz is a unit of measurement for frequency, meaning millions of oscillations, or cycles, per second.
GMRS
General Mobile Radio Service; the name of the radio service created by the FCC located around 462Mhz and 467Mhz that is available for licensed use, and what we’re all about!
Repeater
A remote radio station that receives and rebroadcasts signals in real time. They are typically located at advantageous sites in terms of height above average terrain, including mountain and hilltops, on top of tall buildings or radio towers, or both! Repeaters can greatly boost the coverage range for radio communication devices, such as walkie talkies, vehicle mounted (mobile) stations, and fixed (base) stations.
Simplex
A method of radio operation where users transmit and receive on the same frequency/channel. This is most common for consumer-type handheld and mobile radios, and common in direct radio-to-radio communications
UHF
Ultra High Frequency; the name for the broad band in which the GMRS and many other radio services are located

Simplex Operation

Simplex operation is a direct radio-to-radio method of using a radio, in which all users receive and transmit on the same channel; it is the most common type of operation that people are familiar with. You turn on the radio, dial in a channel (or frequency), and start talking. So long as everyone is on the same channel with the same squelch settings, and everyone is in range, all parties can hear one another.

A basic set of handheld transceivers “Walkie Talkies” set to the same channel for simplex operation

Simplex operation generally works well over shorter distances, or when communicating using a base, mobile or handheld station that’s in a high location. Since there is no repeater, coverage is generally limited to a few miles, although depending on topography, much greater ranges may be possible. It is most easily deployed in the field among groups of people.

The GMRS service has the following 22 simplex channels defined by the FCC:

Channel Number
Frequency
Maximum Power
Bandwidth
1
462.5625 MHz
5 W
20 Khz
2
462.5875 MHz
5 W
20 Khz
3
462.6125 MHz
5 W
20 Khz
4
462.6375 MHz
5 W
20 Khz
5
462.6625 Mhz
5 W
20 Khz
6
462.6875 MHz
5 W
20 Khz
7
462.7125 MHz
5 W
20 Khz
8*
467.5625 MHz
0.5 W
12.5 Khz
9*
467.5875 MHz
0.5 W
12.5 Khz
10*
467.6125 MHz
0.5 W
12.5 Khz
11*
467.6375 MHz
0.5 W
12.5 Khz
12*
467.6625 MHz
0.5 W
12.5 Khz
13*
467.6875 MHz
0.5 W
12.5 Khz
14*
467.7125 MHz
0.5 W
12.5 Khz
15
467.550 MHz
50 W
20 Khz
16
467.575 MHz
50 W
20 Khz
17
467.600 MHz
50 W
20 Khz
18
467.625 MHz
50 W
20 Khz
19
467.650 MHz
50 W
20 Khz
20
467.675 MHz
50 W
20 Khz
21
467.700 MHz
50 W
20 Khz
22
467.725 MHz
50 W
20 Khz

*Radios must have integral, non-removable antennas to operate on these channels

You’ll notice that channels 1-7 are located between channels 15-22 in terms of frequency. Channels 8-14 are actually located between GMRS channels as well, in this case the repeater input frequencies which we’ll discuss in a later section. For this reason, channels 1-14 are known as interstitial channels, and have reduced power output and bandwidth requirements as a result, they must fit and play nicely between the main GMRS channels, 15-22, which were the original GMRS channels before the restructuring.

The reason for this arrangement is due to channels 1-14 originally being license free channels the FCC created for the Family Radio Service, or FRS. Since then, the FCC has consolidated the channels for FRS and GMRS into a common set with different power limitations, due to the rampant misuse of the GMRS service allocations associated with the sale of hybrid FRS/GMRS radios to the general public (which may no longer be sold at this time). This means the GMRS has a few more channels it can now use with slightly elevated power, but has to share its channels with the FRS.

FRS traffic is not a huge problem for GMRS in terms of interference, since the FRS is limited to lower power output than GMRS, and radios must come with non-removable antennas, which are usually very inefficient. Regardless, FRS users can definitely be heard and may require jumping around on different channels in crowded areas or use of a coded squelch to filter out. In either case, FRS users are not allowed to use repeater input channels.

One thing to keep in mind is the different power levels available on the different channels; 1-7 are limited to 5 watts, 8-14 are limited to half a watt, and 15-22 are limited to 50 watts. If everyone is using handheld radios, channels 1-7 will work just fine since they don’t typically transmit with more than 5 watts. If mobile or base station radios are involved, it may make sense to switch to 15-22 to take advantage of the extra power. 8-14 are suitable for close range communications within a mile or so, since they are limited to half a watt. As always, it’s good practice to use the least amount of power necessary to maintain reliable communications, so if everyone has access to high power radios, but is within a couple miles of each other, channels 1-7 might still be fine and it helps keep the air waves clean and free of excess interference.

Repeater “Duplex” Operation

We’ve discussed briefly in the previous section that topography and tall buildings can greatly affect the usable range of a radio. UHF radio is generally considered line of sight, although this is a bit of a misnomer, since radio waves will frequently travel beyond what is directly visible due to scattering, refraction, and other forms of interaction with the natural environments.

Taking a look at the landscape around you, a few landmarks probably stand out as visible in a large portion of the location you may be in; these are commonly tall buildings, water and/or radio towers, mountain peaks (even distant ones). These are all features that greatly protrude above the horizon, and for this reason, are often where you will find radio installations, be it for broadcast TV & radio or for two-way communications, including cellular services. As far as two-way radio goes, repeaters often find a home in these sites.

Located in a high-visibility location, repeaters provide enhanced line-of-sight coverage for stations that wish to boost their range. Repeaters work by listening on one frequency, and when receiving a signal, immediately re-transmit the received signal from the high ground; repeaters are unique in that they are able to receive and transmit at the same time.

Repeater providing coverage to two stations that would otherwise be out of range

The reason for transmitting and receiving on different frequencies is due to a number of reasons; primarily since two stations transmitting on the same frequency would cause interference, and if the repeater were to listen to its own transmit frequency, it would not be able to hear anything other than itself (and get stuck in a feedback loop along the way!); for this reason, the two frequencies are separated.

The GMRS service includes the following repeater channels. The input frequency is the frequency on which the repeater listens and a user’s radio will transmit to use the repeater, and the output frequency is the frequency on which the repeater transmits and the user’s radio listens. The change in frequency happens automatically when the user presses the “Push-to-Talk” button on their radio.

Channel Number
Input Frequency
Output Frequency
15R
467.550 Mhz
462.550 Mhz
16R
467.575 Mhz
462.575 Mhz
17R
467.600 Mhz
462.600 Mhz
18R
467.625 Mhz
462.625 Mhz
19R
467.650 Mhz
462.650 Mhz
20R
467.675 Mhz
462.675 Mhz
21R
467.700 Mhz
462.700 Mhz
22R
467.725 Mhz
462.725 Mhz

Note that the output frequencies on channels 15R to 22R match that of the GMRS high power simplex frequencies (15-22); these channels are shared by simplex and repeater users.

Configuring your radio to use repeaters depends on the make and model, its a little different for each one, and not every type of GMRS radio will be capable of doing this.  You will need to consult your radio’s manual or alter it’s programing to utilize the Texas GMRS Network repeaters. Note that most repeaters require setting a CTCSS (PL/DPL/DCS) tone to activate them; this is discussed in the next section.

Coded Squelch Systems

Just about all radios used for 2-way communications come with a device called a squelch. A squelch serves as a sort of check-valve to turn on the receiver in the presence of a signal; without it, you would be listening to non-stop static between transmissions, it works as a way to keep the radio quiet unless it receives a signal.

A basic squelch looks at only signal strength to determine when to turn on the speaker; however this makes it susceptible to interference, as not every signal a radio picks up is necessarily a signal you want to listen to. In places with lots of interference generating sources, the user can often still be bothered by the squelch opening up and causing a bunch of unwanted noise.

To address this issue; manufacturers came up of a few ways to signal to a receiving radio that the signal source is in fact another radio, by injecting an audio signal that is not likely to occur from external interference. This tone or data pulse is known as a coded squelch, and is most commonly based on the CTCSS and DCS standards. These at times are also marketed under the names Private Line (PL), Privacy Code, Sub-Channel, and a few other variants, but they’re essentially all the same thing using the same tone or pulse standards.

Because CTCSS and DCS can set unique squelch codes, using a code squelch essentially gives the following benefits:

  1. Eliminates random interference from coming through the squelch and being heard on a receiver. This is the primary reason repeaters utilize coded squelches; it prevents them from keying up and re-transmitting a bunch of noise
  2. Lets groups of users use the same channel / frequency, while only being able to hear others in their party using the same squelch code. Users who transmit on the same time in different groups may still cause interference to one another, but it prevents others from being bothered by transmissions unrelated to their party.

Common Operating Practices

It’s important not to take certain formalities too seriously; one should focus on using the radio in a matter that works well for them. With that said; there are a few general rules to keep in mind for starters:

  1. GMRS users must identify their transmissions with their FCC issued call-sign every 15 minutes, or at the end of a series of transmissions.
  2. Foul language is not allowed by the FCC
  3. Keep a brief pause between transmissions so other stations can have a chance to break in if they need to.
  4. When using a repeater, wait until after the courtesy tone to transmit – this is a brief beep or tone you may hear shortly after someone keys up the system. The intent is to give a pause for other stations to break in. Some repeaters will time-out after a few minutes if this is not followed and cease to transmit for a brief duration. Not all repeaters will have this.

Special thanks to Tucson GMRS Association for this information.

*Last Updated on 06/06/2020

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